The African World in Dialogue: A Pan-African Anthology

This Call for Papers seeks submissions for a multigenre multilingual anthology of the contemporary African World experience. The objective of this volume is to gather the wisdom, experiences, dreams, concerns, answers, and artistry of both seasoned and burgeoning writers, artists, and activists into an anthology that will feature Africana people as the sources of wisdom, forces of interpretation, agents of empowerment, determiners of destinies, and essential articulators of the contemporary African World experience.


AWD Call for Papers (159 kb)

The truth about the British invasion of the Benin (Ẹdo) kingdom in 1897

In 1897 the British colonialists carried out a punitive expedition against the Benin (a.k.a. Ẹdo) kingdom and ransacked the palace. Till date the Ẹdo people claim to have been very unfortunate and unfair victims of British thuggery and add that it was a major factor that led to the decline of their once glorious land. They even released a movie “Invasion 1897” in furtherance of their attempt at evoking global sympathy seeking justification for their claims of entitlement in the form of reparations. However, this picture that some Ẹdo historians have been painting is delusional and dubious as they have been very economical with the truth.

For quite a while prior to this ransacking of Benin, her people had been raiding other nation and abducting their citizens for use as slaves. To them, having many slaves was a thing of prestige, and her nobles competed among themselves in this regard. For instance, they recall that a particular military chief had more than 10,000 slaves. Haaaaaa! This even beats the highest number of trans-Atlantic slaves ever owned by a single Jew even though the Jews were the main arrowheads and financiers of the trans-Atlantic slavery.

With these in mind it will not be surprising if they tried convincing themselves that they were superior to their fellow black brethren. Such a delusional point of view would have been promoted by the Portuguese, one of the families of the oyinbos, with whom Benin had been exchanging ambassadors. In fact, in every place in Africa where the oyinbos sought for blacks as slaves, they exploited and fueled, even with sorcery, already existing beefs (resentments) to create chaos and disintegration following which they would pretend to intervene and thus present themselves as saviours and their victims as clueless. An example is the Kongo (the ancient Egyptian peoples) which had been existing in unity for about one thousand years until the oyinbo arrived there in 1436 CE. Another is the portion of the Aku (Ọmọ Oduduwa) territory of Guinea (replication of biblical Canaan) where Ifẹ-Owodaye (replication of biblical Judah), Ọyọ and Dahomey (biblical Dan) are situated and were at each other’s throats.

Before the advent of the trans-Atlantic slavery, Benin had been attacking the kingdoms of Ifẹ-Owodaye and this was not only for slave raids. They also unsuccessfully tried to steal the original ade (crown) of Oduduwa, the progenitor of the Ọmọ Oduduwa and grandfather of the eponymous ancestors of the Ọmọ Oduduwa and Benin peoples, from one of the families of the Ọmọ Oduduwa known as Idanre. This was in order to support their lie about being senior to the Ọmọ Oduduwa and being the ancestor of Oduduwa. Like the oyinbos, they took advantage of the internecine strife afflicting their brethren and pillaged and plundered – Ọyọ did same to Ifẹ-Owodaye.

With all these in mind, it is obvious that the “Invasion 1897” was a case of “do unto others as you want done unto you” a.k.a. karma as the oyinbo with whom they were wining and dining never cared about them and gave them the bashing they so thoroughly deserved. It was also a historical fractal as this incident which is of this present (6th) age had occurred during the 4th age which is been well recorded in the bible (e.g. Ezekiel 25 and the book of Obadiah). Archaeologists have also confirmed the sacking of their kingdom.

Aren’t Igbos the biblical Horites who intermarried with the Edo people?

I had been suspecting since February or March this year that the Igbos are the biblical Horites of Genesis 14:6, 36:20 and Deuteronomy 2:12, rather than descendants of Ẹdo (Esau) as I had previously thought. Consequently, I had considered reviewing this essay. Now I have decided to start the review.

One reason for this Igbo-Horite connection hypothesis is the similar history of expulsion. When the Ẹdo people led by their progenitor left Canaan (Genesis 36:1-8) for their inheritance called Mount Seir (Deuteronomy 2:12, 22), they met the Horites already there. For a while these Horites ruled over them as dukes/chiefs until some generations later when the Ẹdo people overpowered and expelled them and took full control of that land. This was in the 4th age. In the present (6th) age, the Igbos were (finally) expelled from the land known today as Ẹdo c. mid 18th century CE but have claimed, especially those from Onitsha, to be descendants of Edo royalty. An Ẹdo historian called Jacob Egharevba even noted that the Ẹdos met some people already living on the land known today as Benin.

The present Ẹdo royal dynasty was founded sometime during the 12th century CE by Ọranmiyan (the latest incarnation) and an Ẹdo princess known as Erimwinde and the rulers bear the title Ọba. The Ẹdos say the rulers of the previous dynasty bore the title Ogiso (Hyksos according to the Greeks) of whom one of them was known as Ogiso Ere. The name appears to be a cognate of Eri, the name of the ancestor of the Igbos. If Eri is Ogiso Ere, the claim of the Igbos of being of Ẹdo royalty would be accurate and imply that the Igbos once dominated and ruled over the Ẹdos.

Going further, the names Eri and Ere appear to be the source of the biblical Horite, the -ite suffix is an Indo-European lexical device to indicate that the word is a noun referring to a group of people or that a person(s) belongs to a particular group e.g. Levite from Levi, Nigerien from Niger, etc. Thus, Horite is very likely derived from the suffixation of -ite to Hori.

  • Eri > (H)ori

Also, the transition from the Ogiso dynasty to the Ọba dynasty  was not smooth as two camps allegedly emerged. One was in favour of having kings rule over them while the other was in favour of a republican system which would involve being ruled by chiefs. The second camp was just like what the Ẹdo people had to deal with during the 4th age as recorded in the bible. In this 6th age Igbos have been known to be republicans and not to have kings. Therefore, they would have been of the second camp which is similar to that of the biblical Horites. All these similarities cannot be denied and indicate clearly that the Igbos are the biblical Horites. Additionally, they suggest that the Igbos are not descendants of the Ẹdos, but they do indicate that they have been intermarrying for a long time. This would account for cultural similarities like a strong preference for the red colour and a strong desire to convince themselves that they are senior to the Aku people (Ọmọ Oduduwa). Perhaps the descendants of Eri appropriated Ẹdo traditions as their own.

Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì is the language of the Abyssinians (a.k.a Gehazi, Geʻez, Habesha)

A term used by the Aku people (Ọmọ Oduduwa) for a strange language is ede Gẹẹsi (Èdè Gẹ̀ẹ́sì). Ede is translated as language while that of Gẹẹsi has been forgotten as they cannot remember the etymology but generally assume that the term ede Gẹẹsi refers to a strange language.

The use of the adjective strange is important because they do not qualify languages of other blacks like Igbo, Edo, Igala, Hausa, Ewe, Borgu, etc. as strange else they would have also used other adjectives like foreign and alien. They however refer to European languages as ede Gẹẹsi which, in my opinion, is odd because they do not refer to the Europeans likewise as Gẹẹsi but differently as oyinbo, and languages are named after the nationality in question. In contrast, they do not refer to Arabic (Arab language) as ede Gẹẹsi but refer to Arabs also as oyinbo. Why? What is it about the European languages that distinguish them from Arabic even though their native speakers are oyinbo? Perhaps this is because the Aku forgot over time the true subject of the term Gẹẹsi.

The answer which is undeniable is in the orientation. While Arabic is written from right to left like most indigenous languages from Africa to Asia (e.g. Aku/Ifa), European languages are written from left to right even though a large majority of the nationalities on earth is right-handed and the more suitable orientation for this (right-handed) majority that includes a large majority of Europeans is right to left. This is probably the reason European languages are regarded by the Aku as Gẹẹsi, that is, strange. But it does not explain why Gẹẹsi is equated to strange as the proper Aku word for strange is ajeji (àjèjì).

Perhaps there is a language out of all the left-to-right languages of the world that is called Gẹẹsi. If so, perhaps it was the first of such languages to be written in that orientation or was the first of such to be known to the Akus hence their eventual application of the term ede Gẹẹsi to all such languages.

Geʻez, the language of the Abyssinians who are also known as Habesha and are descendants of biblical Gehazi (2 Kings 5:20-27) is the answer.

Gẹẹs(i) > Geʻez

Gẹẹsi > Ge(h)azi

It is the language which the Aku originally called ede Gẹẹsi and is written from left-to-right. The Europeans with their left-to-right languages began arriving in the Guinea (Canaan) region of West Africa which is the inheritance of the Akus and named after Ogun from the 14th century CE but the Akus would have been previously aware, from stories of travelers and traders, of the existence of the unnatural left-to-right Gẹẹsi language. It can thus be assumed that the Akus thereafter applied the term ede Gẹẹsi to all left-to-right languages. (It should be noted that when the Akus left the Horn of Africa region at the end of the 5th age, the Gẹẹsi and their relatives who had been surrounding them used the opportunity to enter that land, rename it from Eshumare to Axum, and carried out identity theft. Perhaps the ancient artifacts bearing the ancient scripts of the Akus that were unearthed by archaeologists were read from right-to-left rather than from left-to-right as claimed by the Gẹẹsi or they planted those left-to-right artifacts there upon invading that land; cf. Luke 13:28; Revelations 22:15. They did these in collaboration with the rejected one among the oyinbo.)

But the Aku etymology of Gẹẹsi has to be uncovered. Given that the person Gẹẹsi is also known as Lajuwa, the covetous Osi-ẹfa (a high ranking servant in the palace of the Ọọni of Ifẹ) who was beheaded for his gross greed, the best place to search for the etymology of Gẹẹsi might be the Ifa literary corpus and historical records of the historians of the palace of the Ọọni of Ifẹ. Also needed from the same same is the story of Lajuwa.

The Abyssinians a.k.a. Ethiopians are descendants of Gehazi of 2 Kings 5:20-27

A man whose name is rendered in English bibles as Gehazi is recorded therein as being cursed with “leprosy” by his master for his incorrigible greed, dishonesty and “419” (obtaining under false pretense) and his descendants were to be affected as well. As soon as the curse was pronounced he allegedly became “as white as snow.” Given that he had been a descendant of Aku (biblical Jacob) who is black and the production of melanin which is responsible for skin pigmentation is traceable to certain genes, the curse must have immediately affected his genome. Furthermore, that his descendants were to inherit it implies the mutation affected not just his autosomes but his sex chromosomes as well. It manifested phenotypically as a loss of skin pigmentation that had him become either

  • an albino, or
  • an oyinbo,
  • a vitiligo or similar disease patient, or
  • all of the above.

The result was that he left his master’s presence, but there is no other clear biblical detail about his and his descendants’ activities other than his appearance before an Ọọni, that is, the ruler of Ifẹ Owodaye (biblical Judah) to narrate the wonderful deeds of his former master (2 Kings 8:4). If this story is true, where then are his descendants? The clue is the name Gehazi which should be the name by which his descendants would have called themselves and their language.

The people that satisfy this very well are found today in the Horn of Africa region. They have been known as Abyssinians and Habesha but today call themselves Ethiopians which raises suspicions as oyinbo rulers and historians have in the past regarded all blacks as Ethiopians and the land mass of the African continent up to the Indian subcontinent as Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the link between the Abyssinians and Gehazi is Geʻez, the name of their ancient language.

  • Gehaz(i) > Gehaz > Geʻez

The link is very clear. Perhaps as the bible was being propagated they dropped the name Geʻez in an attempt to prevent others from noticing the link. But they are only partially black, which opponents of this hypothesis might want to use as argument since he allegedly became “as white as snow.” Well, the counter argument is that there is no mention in the bible about whether or not he was already married, and if he was his wife was not affected by the curse so his post-curse children crossbreed, that is, having features seen in Abyssinians. Even if he was not married yet he could have sired children from a woman or women either with or without consent. Since his children would have looked different they would not have been able to live with the Akus or their neighbouring relatives and so would have emigrated elsewhere. It is also very likely that they would have upon emigration been falsely claiming the identity of the Akus.

The biblical incident occurred in the 4th age but till date – we are in the 6th age –  they still practice the identity theft. For instance

  • they claim to be the descendants of biblical Sheba whereas the Ijẹbu people are
  • they claim to be the people of the ancient kingdom of Axum whereas the Aku people are
  • they twisted the name Eshumare to Axum

In addition, those who call themselves Somali are their relatives who took their name from Eshumare. Perhaps the Abyssinians were the heirs of Gehazi while the Somali (and others like the Tigre and Falasha Jews) are their siblings. They occupied that region and fabricated the history of that region after the Akus left that place at the end of the 5th age. I’ve wondered why they were called Abyssinians when Abyss means bottomless Pit. Perhaps they have no place in ọrun and were expelled to the bottomless pit where the rejected beings like Zeus come from.

There is an account in the history of the Akus from this 6th age of a certain palace servant named Lajuwa who had a strange feature, wavy hair. I call it strange because Akus do not have it naturally as theirs is quite curly. Also, I suspect that he might have been a reincarnation of Gehazi in this age. He was the Osi’ẹfa whose function is to act as the Ọba in all matters whether civil or military whenever the Ọba is not around and thus has intimate access to him, his children, and is allowed to use his paraphernalia of office. Below is a short YouTube clip by AltruisticShinobi of a terracotta head of Lajuwa.

It was during the reign of the 12th Ọọni known as Ọba Aworokolokin. When this Ọọni joined his ancestors Lajuwa who may have coveted the glory and honour of the throne having tasted of it saw an opportunity to rule as the Ọọni. To accomplish this he put away the Ọọni’s body, put on his clothes and thus was able to fool people for a while. In order to perpetuate his deception he probably would have required the assistance of his fellow servants and may have worn a royal mask like that of Ọbalufọn to hide his face. After a while the truth was revealed, Ekun who was selected as the next Ọọni was crowned, and Lajuwa and his colleagues were executed.

Like Gehazi, Lajuwa was greedy, covetous and committed 419. Perhaps he had already been cursed likewise before or during the reign of Ọba Aworokolokin. Perhaps also if he’d already sired children they would have emigrated to the Horn of Africa to become leaders there.

Joke of the day!


Re: Did West Africans Develop Cast Iron In Pre-colonial Times? by Chinaimporter: 3:11am On Aug 04, 2014
If by west african,u mean indigineous ones like ijaw..non but if you mean migrant ones like the igbos the yes.cast iron was discovered by the igbos around 2500bc .The true origin of the igbos lies in the sumerian city of ur near the site on ancient babylonia.the igbos establist the ubaid dynasty headed by the great igbo king meshanepada who built a ziggurat in honor of the great god nnanna(also called nanna in sumerian and sin in akkadian) who asked the igbos to migrate to other part of the world to spread civilization in the then young world. Igbos then invented the first alphabet called the cuneiform and left babylon under an igbo family called the Akadians who where the ancestors of modern arabs,Ethiopians and jews through a former sheperd of igbo orign called abraham.
The igbos then migrated to perisia which they civilized and gave her first royal dynasty and their god called Ahura mazda(i hi ura mu aza gi meaning he who answers me in my sleep)
From there they went to ancient egypt where they civilized and gave her first pyramids and also sent a delegation th civilized the barbarians in the north called the should be noted that some of the greatest greek men where igbos eg aristotle(erie asi tolu uto), pythagoras(bia ta ara) achilles( aku ili) etc.
The igbos also enslaved the isrealites in both babylonia and Egypt and after they got tired of the city life they migrated to eastern nigeria while civilizing the Nubians, yorubas,fulanis etc on there should be noted that oduduwa and bayegida were all igbos in oduduwa case yoruba legend holds that he is a fair man from the east. The igos are not desended from jews or egyptians rather thses people are all desended from the igbos and and unbiased historical evaluation would prove that