Who is Aku?


When the Amorites came to this region of West Africa and wanted to know the collective name of the people now known as Yoruba, they noted the Yoruba used to call themselves Aku but had forgotten the meaning. The conclusion was that the name was related to the ‘ ku‘ of their greeting but since their language is very specific concerning the tones, in this case ‘A‘ and ‘‘, I doubted this assumption.

There is actually someone in our history who was called Aku. A powerful shrine dedicated to him exists in Irefin, Ekiti State and is referred to in pages 382, 384 and 387 of “Persée : Notes on Orisha Cults in the Ekiti Yoruba Highlands. A Tribute to Pierre Verger“. It is very possible that there may be other sacred grounds dedicated to him in other parts of Yoruba land. Since the Yoruba used to call themselves by his name, he is one of their eponymous ancestors.

Interestingly, the name Aku is the proper rendition of Jacob and Yakub, both mischievous transliterations by the Amorites. A technique of re-lexification used by the Amorites, including the Jews and Hellenists, for the purpose of fitting the language of the Redeemer’s people to their tongue was to make nouns which end in vowel sounds to end with consonants, e.g. Edo  to Edom, Ijebu to Jebus, Adamu to Adam, and so on.

As mentioned in previous essays, Oranmiyan is the same person as Aku (Jacob), hence it would not be surprising if some Ifa verses featuring the name Aku have it replaced with Oranmiyan (very speculative on my part). The Yoruba people can get to know more about Aku along with other ancestors like AjakaAganjuKori etc by studying their respective oriki (praising the consciousness of …), and thus verify if this post is pure nonsense or not. They also need to find out how and why they forgot about him (perhaps Deuteronomy 4 and 8).

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The Li-Fa Dichotomy And Yoruba Jurisprudence – Akin Oyebode


Introduction

The issue of moral rectitude and indeed that of what constitutes acceptable behaviour is an enduring one in philosophy. Every people and community espouse a view on the morally upright person who is, ipso facto, entitled to consociate with other members of society. The norms of inter-personal relationships not infrequently mirror the ethos and social values of a people and, therefore, define their attitudes, sensibilities and world-view. It is on account of this that it is interesting to observe some similarities in the perception and prescription of the Yoruba and the Chinese peoples who, incidentally, are differentiated by factors such as geography, language and culture.

The intendment of this presentation is to explore areas of similarity between the attitudinal chemistry and moral judgment of the Yoruba and Chinese in relation to what constitutes propriety and accepted modes of conduct. Indeed, the similarity in attitudes and moral approach among our peoples would suggest that differences in race or language should not stand in the way of friendship and collaboration, more so within the current age of globalization and shrinking of artificial boundaries between nations, peoples and cultures.

The Nature of Yoruba Society

The Yoruba people of Western Nigeria represent one of the largest nationalities in the country, with a Diaspora that extends to many countries including Benin, Togo, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, United States, Brazil, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago. They number nearly 50 million people and possess an intricate, well-developed culture, typified by their rich folklore, music, dances, sculpture, arts and crafts, dressing, ethnic scarification, traditional form of government (the Obaship system), incantations, proverbs, family poems (oriki), festivals, initiation rites, literature and other attributes that mark them out as a unique people.

The cosmology of the Yoruba is centered around Olodumare (God) and the Orisha (lesser gods} which superintend over their universe and exercise overarching authority over the Oba, who is himself considered the representative of God on earth and a direct descendant of Oduduwa, the great progenitor and acknowledged founder of the Yoruba principality.

The Yoruba are the most urbanized people in Nigeria. Traditional government of the Yoruba is under the Oba who is assisted by a number of chiefs usually chosen from the various quarters in the town. Interestingly, there is a class of chiefs who select the Oba. Now, these kingmakers are also empowered to relieve a tyrannical or unruly Oba of his position by “opening the calabash.” When this happens, the dethroned traditional ruler was expected to commit suicide or be banished as punishment for his misrule and malfeasance. Thus, the checks and balances available in Yoruba constitutional law created a form of constitutional monarchy in acknowledgement of the penchant of the people for democracy and the rule of law.

Although most of what has been described above has since been overtaken by modern developments, there is a lot of merit in the view that while it is conceded that the Yoruba are only one out of the over 400 nationalities and ethnic groups within the Nigerian polity, the nuances of Yoruba political sociology have continued to impact on Nigeria’s contemporary reality.

The Li-Fa Dichotomy and its Throwback on Yoruba Jurisprudence

Before the “Legalists” came to the scene in 300 B.C., the dominant idea in China was the Confucian notion of a cosmic order of things in which, in the words of David and Brierly,  “[there was] a reciprocal interaction between heaven, earth and men. Heaven and earth observe invariable rules in their movement, but men are masters of their own acts; and, according to the way in which men behave, there will be order or disorder in the world.” In other words, there was the possibility of attaining good if man followed strict rules of behaviour, hence Confucius formulated the Golden Rule: Never do to others what you would not want them to do to you. Furthermore, he counseled moderation in all things, especially in governance.

According to Confucius,

“Excessive wealth creates haughtiness. Excessive poverty leads to envy;

envy leads to robbery, haughtiness leads to lawlessness;

this is the nature of the people. Therefore, the wise rulers institute humane

government so that the rich be restrained and not become too greedy and the poor

will then have enough sustenance and not worry about their daily food. In this way,

there is a balance between the poor and the rich. Therefore it is easy to govern and  maintain order…”

 

The five relations in society, those between father and child; husband and wife; elder and younger brother; ruler and subject; and, friend and friend were all founded on respect arising out of li or natural law. In the thinking of Confucius, “If ancient, age-old customs are not observed or (even) changed, everything would be mixed up and confusion would set in.”

Li entailed the existence of an eternal natural order underlying both the human society and the non-human world (tao). Accordingly, li is associated with moral force rather than physical force such that Confucian thought is characterized by an extremely strong feeling for the anti-thesis between moral or spiritual force and physical coercion. It has been said that “so strong is this feeling that moral force is practically equated with the good while anything associated with sanction of physical coercion is tainted with evil.”

It is contended that “within the ideal Confucian order, the institution of government would play a peculiarly restricted role and the ruling class becomes the very epitome of this moral force, radiating it to the rest of the population.” Thus, li is not a body of rules designed to take care of every exigency but an instrument for training character and nourishing moral force.

In a society where li prevails, unbridled self-interest is placed under effective control from within, as it were. Conflicts of interests are resolved through individuals yielding to one another (jang) and the necessity for litigation will be avoided.

However, in all areas where li cannot be made to apply, fa (law or force) must be employed in order to maintain order. Fa is said to be enacted law designed to keep order by appeal to the fear of punishment, that is to say, the fear of punishment or sanction of force. Thus, where the ruling class must place heavy reliance on fa, it is a symptom of its own inability to rule by li.

It has been said that

“If the people be led by laws and uniformity sought to be given by punishments,

they will try to avoid punishments but have no sense of shame. If they be led

by virtue and uniformity sought to be given them by li, they will have a sense

of shame and, moreover, will become good,”

This, presumably, is why the philosopher, Shu H’siang declared, “A state has most laws when it is about to perish.” In the words of Professor Tsao, “It is a time-honoured tradition of the Chinese to settle disputes by resorting first to Ch’ing, human sentiment, then to Lii, reason and lastly to Fa, law.”

Accordingly, it has been said that it is not that law is excluded from Chinese life, but it played a minor role. In the opinion of David and Brierly, “Law is good for barbarians; for those who do  not share the values of Chinese civilization.”

However, Han-Fei-tzu and his fellow Legalists apprehended the necessity for replacement of a government by men with government by laws. The need for entrenchment of the Ch’in dynasty warranted the establishment of permanent laws known to bureaucrats and binding on all subjects. Fa chih or rule of law introduced legal specialists who, nevertheless, occupied a relatively lowly position in the scheme of things in the later period of the empire despite their exploits of confucianization of the Criminal Code by prescribing severe penalties for crimes against the five relations. Thus, the realm of li which was previously supposed to rest on the sanction of moral force now came to receive strong support from the criminal law itself just as other areas of civil relations such as inheritance, marriage, disposition of property became pronounced and were subjected to legal regulation.

To summarize, one tends to be in agreement with David and Brierly that in ancient China, law was conceived as “an instrument of arbitrary action rather than the symbol of justice; it was a factor contributing to social disorder, rather than social order. The good citizen must not concern himself with law: he should live in a way which excludes any revendication of his rights or any recourse to the justice of courts. The conduct of individuals must, unfailingly, be animated by the search for harmony and peace through methods other than law. Conciliation was a greater value than justice; mediation must be used to dissolve the conflicts rather than law to resolve them. Law may exist to serve as a method of intimidation or as a model; but law was not made with a view to being applied as in the West. Scorn was reserved for those who aspired to regulate matters according to law or those whose pre-occupation was its study or application, and who thereby defy convention and accepted proprieties…”

Now where does all this leave us in terms of Yoruba jurisprudence?

Let me begin by stating that the Yoruba concept of the Omoluabi is reminiscent of the Chinese notion of the morally upright person who orders his life in accordance with the dictates of li. The omoluabi is well brought-up, reveres the oba and accords utmost respect to elders and those occupying a higher pedestal than himself on the social ladder. He lives according to the dictates of propriety and would be disinclined to drag his fellow-man to court since he has imbibed the idea that parties never leave the court-house to become friends. Besides, in consonance with the norms of traditional African judicial process, disputes are rather to be dissolved just like in Ancient China instead of being resolved as is characteristic of contemporary western practice. Among the Yoruba, a decent person naturally does what is expected of him in consonance with his noble antecedents in a manner not altogether dissimilar with the application of li in traditional China.

On the other hand, the Odaju or antipode of the omoluabi is a roughneck, scallywag who does not give a damn about civility or the niceties of good upbringing, Having been reared in the fringes of society, an odaju evinces little or no inclination toward finesse and propriety and has to be compelled to behave through the force of law just like fa is applied to rougher elements of Chinese society. A virtual outlaw, the odaju has to be made to fear use of force or threat of use of force to deter him from dysfunctional, anti-social behaviour.

 

The role respect for constituted authority plays in Yoruba society is not altogether different from the underlying role respect plays within the five relations highlighted by the Confucian construct. The inherently conservative Yoruba people usually evince an attitude of better the devil one knows than the angel one is yet to meet. Accordingly, the proverbs and sentiments of the people are generally directed towards maintenance of the status quo as against the allure of radical or revolutionary change.

The omoluabi in Yoruba culture exhibits a sense of shame just as in China which is totally lacking in the odaju. This sense of shame becomes the acid test of good and proper upbringing and serves as a check against misconduct. The omoluabi is perfectly conscious of ewo (abomination) and would not act in any way that would invite opprobrium and distaste from right- thinking members of society generally. Thus, public opinion rather than sanction of law is an important aspect of proper conduct within Yoruba society.

 

Conclusion

It is submitted that the extrapolation of throwbacks on Yoruba jurisprudence by the li-fa dichotomy in Chinese legal thought constitutes a useful contribution to comparative law and jurisprudence and which is deserving of greater study in order to emphasize our common humanity and establish the vitality of the different strands of various peoples and cultures  into the tapestry of human civilization.

Thank you.

 

Oyebode, Professor of Law and Chairman, Office of International Relations, Partnerships and Prospects University of Lagos, Nigeria delivered this paper to law students in China.

Source: The Guardian (November 4, 2012)

Presentation to Soochow University, China on October 23, 2012

Professor, Department of Jurisprudence and International Law and Chair, Office of International Relations, Partnerships and Prospects, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Banker whose book stunned Yoruba royal fathers–Segun Adebiyi


Source: The Sun

October 20, 2012

Banker whose book stunned Yoruba royal fathers–Segun Adebiyi

literaryworld
with Henry Akubuiro   hakubuiro@googlemail.com    08070965586

If you aren’t a famous political bigwig in the country and eminent royal fathers are just offering you an open door in their palaces, something must have given rise to the plenty hurrahs. In just few months, Otunba Segun Adebiyi has been received by several Yoruba royal fathers, including the Alaafin of Oyo. It wasn’t because of his job as a banker in Switzerland; it was because of his sensational juvenilia, Oba Adeleke Alaso Eye, which has since been approved by the Federal Ministry of Education for use in Nigerian school curricula. The writer spoke to Saturday Sun on his sudden rise to fame.

When did it occur to you that you were cut out to be writer and how did you develop the talent?

The ability to write came from my curiosity to learn new things, acquiring knowledge, trying to find out why things were the way they were. In the process, I developed the interest for reading and writing. As a schoolboy, I was relatively in the frontline of many academic activities back then. Now, I still would not call myself a writer in that sense, though I could be on the right path.

What triggered the idea for Oba Adeleke…?

There are two major reasons that motivated my writing the book, the first being promoting and raising public awareness and  appreciating our indigenous languages and protecting them, as well as our culture and tradition from disintegration as a result of cultural pollution. One major problem we have in Nigeria today is bad governance, despite the knowledge and skills we acquire on a daily basis. Study has shown that Nigerians are some of the most educated people in the world.

Apart from Egypt, early African civilization started among the peoples of Nigeria, including the Benin Empire, Oyo Empire, Nri Kingdom, Kanem-Bornu Kingdom and, in recent history, the Sokoto Caliphate, Jaja of Opobo, and the rest of them. You now wonder how the cause of these deficits came about in our system, given our track record of institutional capacity building and knowledge acquisition. Poverty cannot be why we have an alarming corruption rate in Nigeria, because, if you go to many African, Latin American and South East Asian nations, one would begin to appreciate good governance in the midst of a pronounced poverty that exists there. The second reason I wrote the book is to promote and raise public awareness about culture of reading. We have to, again, cultivate the culture of reading into our daily lives, and children are the most affected in this regard.

Can you lead us into your fictional enterprise?

The book is an educative prose short story that propagates value versus materialism for children between 10 and 13 years. Above all, it focuses on our children growing up not only to be useful to themselves but also to contribute to their immediate environment and the society at large –and the only way to do this is by identifying with their culture, ethics and value, as modern education alone does not amount to leadership or followership of integrity as we witness in our nation today. The book primarily teaches honesty, truthfulness and humility among both children and adults. We have to enjoin children as stakeholders in the campaign against corruption and they have to be taught to have a good sense of direction and thorough understanding about value and; through my book, much about value can be learned. I intend using the book to sensitize, educate and enlighten our children who are the future leaders on the need to shun materialistic approach to life and the belief that amassing wealth at all costs is the only way to sustainability and happiness.

 

You have suddenly become the toast of eminent Yoruba royal fathers…

Yes, since its publication, the book has been endorsed in several quarters unexpectedly by many stakeholders, including school teachers, book critics and scholars. What’s more, the Oodua Progressive Congress founder and President, Dr. Frederick Fasheun, has also applauded the book. Several Yoruba traditional leaders like the Alaafin of Oyo, HRM Oba Lamidi Olayiwola Adeyemi; the Alake of Egbaland, Oba Adedotun Gbadebo; the Oba of Lagos, Oba Rilwan Babatunde Akiolu; Akran of Badagry, Aholu-Menu-Toyi 1; the Olofin of Ado-odo, Oba Lateef Adeniran Akanni; the Olu of Imashay, Oba Gbadebo Oni; the Onilogbo of Ilogbo, Oba Olufemi Samuel Ojugbele; the Ologba of Ogbaland, Oba Sanni Arolagbade Ashade; among other royal fathers, have all fallen in love with the conceptual motives behind the book.

Also, the book has got enlisted into the National Library of Nigeria archive. It also was recently approved and included in the school syllabus by the Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, for academic use of primary 4 pupils in all Nigerian schools following the review and recommendation by the Nigerian Educational and Research Development Council (NERDC), Abuja. The acceptance has really been very overwhelming.

You are also involved with an NGO, Plight Africa Foundation. What’s your interest in establishing the foundation?

The interest was informed by my passion to be a sort of blessing to the people around me –call it social responsibility, which, in the natural sense, we all need to be part of, depending at what scale, that is, giving back to the society. So, in my own little way, I decided to participate in the area of education by founding Plight Africa Foundation, where we target remote demographic areas where children do not have access to basis education by setting a small library for them, why lobbying the local governments in such areas to establish a primary school in such places. From our villages’ tours and experience, some children as old as 16 years have never set their eyes on a pen or a book before, so also are some adults! So, just as several research indicators have shown that children and women are the most affected in the human development index (and most of these people are found in the rural areas), we are glad that we could help prepare the minds of those people to a formal education. Our focus also is to encourage parents to send their children to school, as education is gateway to poverty eradication and through education already impoverished children may escape generational transfer of poverty.

You have been in Switzerland for a while now. How is literature faring and do you have plans to re-publish Oba Adeleke and other books of yours over there?

Literature in Switzerland is about the best you can find around the world. The people are so informed and very enlightened that they read so much. When you walk into any bookshop and see a huge crowd, one may be forced to assume that people are out there to grab some sort of product for gratis or probably a lottery jackpot. The queue to grab one book or another is just very amazing. This fact is known to so many good authors. As a result, they mostly seek for publishers to have their works make their way to Swiss book shelves not only because of the financial or publicity footnote but partly to gain access to those who will appreciate their works and also express explicit criticism.

Furthermore, the linguistic skill of an average Swiss is above average and the country has a rich literacy tradition, which could be traced to its four national languages: German (73 per cent, central, northern and eastern Switzerland), French (21per cent, western Switzerland), and Italian (5 per cent). The fourth official language, Romansh, is spoken by a minority of less than 1 per cent of the population, but has, nevertheless, a tradition of more than 2000 years in southeastern Switzerland and, apart from that, English is widely spoken throughout the country. By and large, every citizen speaks a minimum of three languages. One could, then, equate this multilingual skill as one of the catalysts for measuring the enormous acceptance of literature there.

On whether we plan to re-publish the book in Switzerland, yes, we have such idea on the pipeline. In fact, the biggest bookstore there is a major sponsor of Plight Africa Foundation, supporting us with book donations and other educational materials. But the focus now is Nigeria. We have an extremely bad reading culture in the country. Today, every child wants to play video game, watch English Premier League, Cartoon or just hang around. There is nothing wrong is all these, but what are the eventual mental benefit for children?

What are you working on next?

Well, my next book project may be on the vocabulary usage of words in Yoruba language for children and other Yoruba language learners –simple words such as Microwaves, Fan, Internet, E-mail, Google, Lubricator, Telescope, Parachute, Satellite, Surgeon, Opener, Navigation-system, Incubator, Refrigerator, Programming, Toaster, Table, Camera, DVD Player, Computer, Cursor, Mouse, Office-stapler, Library, Airport, Seaport, Governor, Petrol, Kerosene, Museum, among others, which would be pragmatically used in unadulterated Yoruba language, because, as it is now, there are difficulties for the children using those words in Yoruba, partly because their Yoruba equivalents are not yet in existence. We may translate these words to other Nigerian languages if the demands arise and if we are able to mitigate with experts in those other Nigerian languages, who could synergize with us at seeing this achieved. The linguistic use of our local language has been so much abused that we no longer see anything wrong in combining or borrowing foreign language while communicating in our local languages which, on the contrary, while speaking foreign languages is never acceptable.

Touchstones Of Change – OMOLUWABI 2.0


SUNDAY, 26 AUGUST 2012 BY TADE IPADEOLA
Omoluwabi-Cover

Omoluwabi 2.0; By Adewale Ajadi; Bookcraft, 2012, 176pp. Review by Tade Ipadeola

To  begin where we are, Africans of the 21st century, currently contributing only about four per cent of all literature produced on the planet today, we do well to consider closely the book Omoluwabi 2.0 with the subtitle: A Code of Transformation in 21st Century Nigeria, by Mr Adewale Ajadi. It comes as the continent takes the curve of change in a race in which the likes of Mr Ajadi are our intellectual equivalents of Usain Bolt or Yohan Blake. There are many who will claim that this generation of Africans are running on a substance as yet unknown to science and they may be right! They are running on cultural software that has been available to Africans throughout the ages.

There are many words for the concept of time in many languages. My readings of Omoluwabi 2.0 evoked specifically the concept of ‘igba’ in Yoruba or ‘kairos’ in Greek as distinguished from ‘akoko’ in Yoruba or ‘chronos’ in Greek. The new book is clearly made for these times. The ideas in it are for those moments in time in which tables turn, destinies change, and values are reborn. They are made for times in which quality more than quantity become defining benchmarks.

We live in interesting times. I performed a little experiment with the book upon getting my copy off the press and if I may aggregate the responses I got just brandishing it all over the place for a whole week, it will be all of four words: ‘what is it about?’ In and of itself, that is a very encouraging sign, or ‘ami’, for it says that we have a generation that will not simply judge a book by its cover, who are curious and who care enough to positively steal a look at what their neighbour is reading in a restaurant, a mechanic’s shed, the church, the hospital waiting room and on the street. It matters what cultural software people are running on. Writers like Norman Lewis have written about how, within a generation, entire human populations in Indochina were transformed from the most practical of pacifists into the most implacable of warriors.

The book is laid out in 15 chapters encompassing everything from demographic policy (or lack thereof), history, cultural imagination, theory, genealogy, urban evolution, national aspiration, continental vision (or its absence), institutional frameworks, higher mathematics and linguistic forensics. All of these are contained in 176 pages, short enough to broach these weighty matters and just long enough to provide perspective. The approach is percipient. We now know, with greater certitude than at any other time in history, that the human mind is infinitely capable of learning, change and adaptation. It is what neuroscientists call neuronal plasticity, what the rest of us know as life.

Mankind has made significant philosophical progress into the 21st century. One of these is the final realization that human beings are quite capable of comprehending and acting upon universal reality. However, universality is usually first cognized in concretized, discrete and particular forms.

The implication is that we begin where we are, comprehending our portion of universal truth and acting on it. Steady contemplation and action is what opens the philosophical door into the light. The good news is that we are more than capable of these as a species; the idea of Omoluwabi is one proof of this truth. It has been with us from time immemorial. What the author of this new book has done is to re-present humanity with the idea of Omoluwabi and to suggest an iteration, an incarnation if you like, of that same idea for our consideration as fellow sojourners in the 21st century.

This choice of a 2.0, of the iterative, is most interesting. We live in a time that is apathetic to philosophy for the most part. Some will argue that it has always been like this. The oppressed submit themselves willingly to oppressors in exchange for food and oppression works through the oppressed. Implicit in nature and in change is the idea of compromise. What Omoluwabi 2.0 shows is how to make informed compromises.

To negotiate progress, one must take a fork in the path. The recursive or the iterative (both mathematically valid, both capable of providing solutions) encapsulated in the saying that ‘t’omode ba subu a wo ‘waju; ‘tagba ba subu, a wehin’, (when a child stumbles, (s)he looks ahead but an adult looks back) again, two approaches to solving problems, with different philosophical implications. The author is aware of both realities and aware also that ‘the world, like the whip, sometimes bends forward, sometimes backward’ (atori ‘laye). That ‘taa ba ‘radan, a maa foobe sebo’. (If we cannot find the bat, we sometimes sacrifice the microbat) And so on. It is my view though, that the author’s stamp of imprimatur appears more in favour of the iterative than the recursive. It is a time-stamp as much as it is imprimatur. It is not a rejection of the alternate approach to living a productive life on the planet. It is just a recognition of the age-old truth that ‘owo omode ko to pepe, t’agbalagba o wo ‘keregbe’. (Need demands old and young wisdom) It is therefore an inclusive vision, in the final analysis.

And then we can venture abroad, specifically to Ireland and California. In the year 1845, the country of Ireland experienced a most devastating famine in the wake of the potato crop failure of that year.  Between 1845 and 1847, the population of Ireland was reduced by two million people, approximately 25 per cent of the Irish population. The event became a defining moment in Irish history for all time. It is worth noting that neither the potato nor the blight that ruined it is native to Ireland. It is thought that the potato was discovered somewhere in Peru and the pathogen was traced to a location in Mexico. We find a similar moral in the story of California and the citrus plant. After the gold rush came and went, California focused on the citrus so much so that when a blight hit the trees, it destroyed the local economy. Again, neither the orange tree nor the pathogen is indigenous to California.

The dangers of monoculture are easy to see in agriculture. Imagination, the kind which the author of Omoluwabi 2.0 exercises enables us to see just how devastating a monologic engagement with paradigms can be in human culture. Mr Ajadi is the lone intrapreneur in a risk-averse global cultural economy. He does not shirk from exposing the callow logic of Hollywood in films like Blood Diamonds. His writing insists that exchange is the process of life and that Africa gave more and better to the world before the world gave to Africa. The author keeps us in mind of great Africans we are in danger of forgetting, people like Tajudeen Abdulraheem, General Khobe and L.t Colonel Francis Adekunle Fajuyi who, rather than give up his guest, the then Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, insisted that the power-seeking posse killed him first. These were men among men, bulls of the African herd.

It is easy to rhapsodize Omoluwabi 2.0. There is much to commend in this book; filial piety, explicative vigour of a most recondite form of metaphysics as well as its enduring testament to courage. There is sufficient material in Omoluwabi 2.0 to enable us know, as Africans, when we have found the right texture for the social fabric that we desire and which alone can place the continent and her people on the proper plane of regard in history. I very much doubt though, that rhapsodizing is what the author wants us to do.

AFRICA has not been short of exemplary texts about which we still speak. There are the Axioms of Kemet, the sympotic writings of Athenaios of Naukratis and the modern inimitable writings of Fanon. They have gone before to humanize us to a degree that foreign texts have not been able to do because deep always calls to deep. What the author of Omoluwabi 2.0 has set out to do is demonstrate how we can transform from indigenes to citizens, how, collectively, we can transform from polis to civis, how the hoi polloi can benefit from the hoi aristoi. We really do not have much of a choice anywhere on the continent. Political, juridical and economic indices have all been stretched to breaking point. The social index alone remains resilient but even that, especially that, requires innovation such as we have on offer in Omoluabi 2.0.

The book is like a smart drug. I read it and asked myself why we never proceeded to make chocolates if we mastered cocoa production so well without mechanization? Why, with thousands of civil engineers coming out our universities, we have not harvested rainwater sufficiently to reclaim the mega Chad; why, with abundant silicon in our sands and the finest thin-film physicists in the world, we have not harnessed the Sahara into the largest electricity source on the planet? Why have we failed so abysmally at moo lo? Why have we as Africans, not yet built shock resistant economies when we have coffee everywhere from Kenya to Ethiopia, Tantalite in the Kivu Valley, Oil from Angola to the Niger Delta and metal from platinum to iron ore? Most importantly, what has happened to the social consciousness that created Lagos and Ibadan? Why are these two, among the largest cities in the world, still without a metro system or even a plan for one? I thought of a thousand things and concluded without a doubt that this book has to be better than cocaine at making the mind run.

A REVIEW should be about praise as well as blame, however. The decision not to number the chapters make referencing difficult to say the least. In many places, the author follows the Omoluwabi principle in not laying out matters too explicitly, too literally. Verbum sapienti is a good axiom to follow at times but perhaps not at all times. This is one compelling reason why the author owes his audience another book in the not-too-distant future. In my considered opinion, the author pulled in his horse mid-flight and too soon in this book. How, as a critical concern, for example, are omens to be distinguished from aggregated patterns empirically processed? This is a distinction that Sun Tzu makes in The Art of War, for example. How is ‘ire’, blessings, to be distinguished from mere desired outcomes? No other place on the planet has as many shamans, pastors and imams who claim to deliver desired outcomes. It is booming business.

Similarly, the treatment of the crucial concept of Moo lo, the principle of utilization, is way too brief. Finally, while commending the author and the publisher for their industry, it is in order to observe that in the 21st century, it is not enough to have the print version of the book but also the electronic form as well. The last time I checked at Amazon, Omoluwabi 2.0 wasn’t there yet. This is a book that needs to travel like yesterday.

Coming back to where we are in conclusion, we underscore the timely elements of the birth of this book. We learn that Omoluwabi 2.0 is concomitantly position and disposition, occupation and pre-occupation, idea and praxis, here and now. It is as if ejiogbe itself is the governing spirit of text and context. I had the privilege of watching the ideas in this book gather like coral in the ocean-wide mind of the author. To what, then, shall we liken Omoluwabi 2.0? It is like a Global Positioning System where all there was before was a magnetic compass. It is like a sailor with a sextant on the seas where all there was before was the naked eye and stars in the skies. It is like song where all there was before were words. It is opportune without being in the least opportunist. But this places a certain demand on the beneficiaries: to be better educated, more aware and finer grained in spirit. It demands the quality of mind known as ‘laakaye’, understanding, from a much greater percentage of Africans than we have now.

I come to the close of my review in the heart of the marketplace. The story of Omoluwabi 2.0 to my mind is very much like the story of Apple. It never was a ‘big’ company like other personal computing firms. Until very recently, it had less than 4 percent of marketshare. Nevertheless, this company has emerged as the most influential brand of its kind on the world stage. The African story has been, like Ralph Ellison so lyrically put it in his immortal novel, The Invisible Man, invisible. Mr Ajadi is here to show us that it is also invincible, if we step up to the plate. The good news is, beyond patronising clichés, we can. YES WE CAN!

Source: The Guardian

Why Do Christians Sing About Lifting Up Jesus?


There are a number of Christian songs that include the admonition to Christians to lift up Jesus. Why is this so when it is clearly stated in the bible that the saviour is seated on high (Ephesians 4:9-10) far above every principality and power (Ephesians 1:20-21)? It is also stated therein that He ascended into heaven (Mark 16) and is seated at the right hand of the Most High God (Psalm 110:1; Mathew 22:44; Hebrews 1:13) and that he lifts those who are humble and of contrite heart to seat with him (Isaiah 57:15)?

  • Is Jesus dead?
  • Hasn’t Jesus got any life in him?
  • Is Jesus too obese and/or too fatigued to lift himself?
  • Should Jesus not be lifting Christians and not the other way around if indeed he is the Truth?
  • Is Christian thought/logic this looney?

Could this be the very evidence of the plagiarism and alteration of Bible texts including the replacement of the true name with the Greco-Roman god Zeus, just as they had earlier done in ancient egypt with the forced and dubious introduction of the image of Serapis Cristus?

Lucis Trust (Lucifer Trust), an organization with historically strong ties to and the publishing concern of the United Nations admit openly that they seek to channel energy to Lucifer who is (Jesus) Christ to enable him manifest on earth. These people also claim that Lucifer sacrificed himself for man to give us tools for advancement.

http://www.lucistrust.org/en/service_activities/triangles/information

This then must be proof that Christ has no life in him, that he is the one described in Revelations 17:8 as the beast “that was, and is not, and yet is” and that Christians are been used knowingly and deceptively to bring about the manifestation of Jesus Christ which clearly differs from the warning/prophecy of the Imisi Iye a.k.a. Messiah (Christ is anti-Messiah; Christians have so far been unable to demonstrate any equivalence of the words ‘Messiah’ and ‘Christ’ or that the Apostles ever used the word ‘Christ’ which is alien to ancient Hebrew).

IYE created His people with the ability to reason, and He wants to reason with them but many have been rejecting knowledge, the understanding of which requires the application of reason, hence the suffering and deaths which He declared as the resulting punishment. This unfortunate situation has been promoted by religious clerics of Christianity and Islam who brainwash their followers to reject reason in matters of faith, because they know that with the application of reason people will easily see through their scams, delusions, contradictions and lawlessness, and utterly reject them. It is therefore not surprising that in places where reason is promoted, e.g. nations of the European fabricators of Christianity, people have been rejecting that religion for atheism, agnosticism, and strange religious ,although their “white saviour industrial complex” encourages them to reject Ifa which is the message of IYE to man, and acknowledge the Negro.

Once again, why do Christians sing about lifting up Jesus?

Nigeria in trouble after President Jonathan knelt before Adeboye a son of Satan


On the 14th of December 2012 Nigeria’s current president, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan a.k.a. GEJ, attended the annual year-end (according to the Gregorian/Hyksos/Amorite calendar) Holy Ghost Congress organized by the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG) in preparation for the following year. The high (actually the opposite) point of this event was when GEJ knelt before Enoch Adejare Adeboye (Figure 1), the General Overseer (GO) of RCCG and popularly referred to by his congregation as Daddy GO. This action is in violation of universal order as the priest (Adeboye is a sorcerer anyway who teaches lawlessness as described later) bows before and receives authority from the ruler (Hebrews 5:1-10). The father does not bow to the son; the Creator does not bow to the Saviour. Thus, Adeboye has been declaring himself unconstitutionally as the Supreme Leader of Nigeria, much like the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902 – 1989) was in Iran, and in competition with the Sultan of Sokoto who is the head of all Fulani and muslims in Nigeria and was perceived as such by some during the times of muslim heads of state.

Psalm 110:4 IYE (the Creator a.k.a. Ọlọrun, Olodumare, Ẹlẹda, e.t.c.) has sworn and will no relent, “You (i.e. Ọrunmila who has always been known to His people the Yoruba as the Redeemer and as Oyigiyigi or ‘Rock of Ages’) are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”

GEJ kneeling before a son of Satan called Adeboye in 2012

Figure 1. GEJ kneeling before a son of Satan called Adeboye in 2012

RCCG is one of the most popular protestant churches in Nigeria and with Nigerians overseas, and is seen by many Nigerians who have lost their identity and want to live like Amorites as the place to be, the trending fad. One of their goals is to have a church building set up in every street, a clear trait of those who rebel like Satan against IYE and one of the many acts of unfaithfulness by HIS people.

Ezekiel 16:23 Then it was so, after all your wickedness–‘Woe, woe to you (Aku aka Omo Oduduwa)! says Oluwa–24 that you also built for yourself a shrine (churches and mosques), and made a high place (very obvious in the spires of churches and the minarets of mosques) for yourself in every street.25 You built your high places at the head of every road, and made your beauty to be abhorred. You offered yourself to everyone who passed by, and multiplied your acts of harlotry (rejecting Eshumare-Obatala who is Oluwa to fornicate with Christianity, Islam, and other strange ways)…31 You erected your shrine at the head of every road, and built your high place in every street. Yet you were not like a harlot, because you scorned payment.

In Nigeria, Adeboye teaches his fellow Omo Oduduwa who are the descendants of Aku (erroneously transliterated as Yakub, Yakubu and Jacob) who is also known to the Yoruba as Ọranmiyan (usually shortened to Ọranyan, a name known to the Greeks as Orion) to commit the very grievous crime of forsaking the Alawo (custodians of mysteries/secrets; erroneously transliterated by Indo-Europeans as Levite), another clear contravention of one of Oluwa’s decree (Deuteronomy 12:19). According to Ifa, specifically Oyeku b’Eka, Eshu Laalu (not Eshumare; erroneously transliterated by fraudulent and schizophrenic Indo-Europeans as Yeshu and Yeshua) always watches over and takes care of the Alawo and in turn receives a portion (a.k.a. tithe) of their offerings.

Deuteronomy 12:19 Take heed to yourself that you do not forsake the Alawo as long as you live in your land.

Adeboye lets members of his congregation refer to him as daddy, engage in brazen noise pollution against the laws of the land, and drives them to be more Christian than the Amorite inventors of Christianity. He is also one of the owners of a private jet and an expensive private university, both at the expense of the masses.

Ezekiel 5:5 Thus says Eshumare: ‘This is Jerusalem (Ile-Ifẹ); I have set her in the midst of the nations and the countries all around her.6 She has rebelled against my judgments by doing wickedness (offspring of Christianity as described below) more than the nations around her; for they have refused my judgments, and they have not walked in my statutes.’7 Therefore thus says Eshumare: ‘Because you have multiplied disobedience more than the nations that are all around you, have not walked in my statutes nor kept my judgments, but have done according to the judgments of the nations that are all around you’–8 therefore thus says Eshumare: ‘Indeed I, even I, am against you and will execute judgments in your midst in the sight of the nations…(the remaining verses of this chapter contains the description of the punishment)

Since Christianity is a religion of sorcery of the Amorites and meant for the manifestation on earth of Satan, i.e. the one was, is not, and yet is, and Christians warship Satan and give their lives to him, Adeboye is a false prophet, a chief sorcerer, and a son of Satan.

This means that Nigerians are in for a very bloody and sorrowful 2013 which is in line with the re-occurrence of historical fractals and the outlook for the year as declared from the divine. Doubters can refer to the events that have happened in Nigeria since the first time GEJ, then acting President, knelt before Adeboye during the holy Ghost congress of December 2010 –

  • GEJ was elected as President of Nigeria, there were bloody protests inspired by the Fulani in northern Nigeria against this election,
  • Nigerians have been constantly inundated with deluge after deluge of news of misappropriation of funds,
  • the amounts of stolen national commonwealth is now in trillions of Naira,
  • kidnapping has become a national pastime of the Igbo,
  • Islamic terrorism has been increasing with more suicide bombers and fatal victims,
  • Widespread man-made flooding across the country especially from the mismanagement of dams,
  • Inefficient power supply,
  • Increase in the pump price of fuel,
  • Several terrible motorway accidents,
  • Illegal oil theft and bunkering,
  • Deaths from plane crashes,
  • A former governor of Kaduna state and a former National Security Adviser perished suspiciously in a helicopter crash – they were disliked by hardcore Islamists,
  • Nigerian devotees of Christianity and Islam who also constitute the bulk of the populace have been getting increasingly religious,
  • GEJ has acquired what is regarded as the notorious record of being the most criticized and insulted leader in the world,
  • The Fulani have been provoking conflict with, destroying farmlands of and murdering Abraham’s descendants (from Aku/Jacob and Edo/Edom in Southern Nigeria and Keturah in the Middle Belt)
  • Sorrow, tears and blood all the way

Jonathan kneeling before chief sorcerer Adeboye in December 2010

Figure 2. Jonathan kneeling before chief sorcerer Adeboye in December 2010

Thankfully, IYE has shown Nigerians a way out of the mess they dived into mitigate the looming calamities – GEJ has to return to his roots, to the tradition of his ancestors. The Alawo and traditionalists of other Nigerian ethnic nationalities are willing to help in this regard. Christians and Muslims have been vehemently opposed to such partly because they are under the influence of sorcery and do not know what they are doing. Also, Christian and Muslim clerics fear the heavy loss of patronage, including financial and social, were such to happen.

Nigerians, except perhaps the Fulani, love GEJ their president and know that he can perform much better in office and steer this country aright, hence their frequent chastising and alarm at his current and cumulative output. He should avail himself of IYE’s abundant mercy for HE is good and HIS mercy endures forever (Psalm 117 – 118), and utterly reject the Christianity and the Holy Ghost which is not the Spirit of Truth/Purity but fraudulently inserted into the Scriptures by Indo-Europeans and of the Hellenists, else…

[Original photos from nigeriafilms.com and olorisupergal.com]

The scandal of census figures – Nigeria


THURSDAY, 25 OCTOBER 2012 00:00 BY FF

A COUPLE of years ago, I was trying to look for a link between population figures in Nigeria and the monthly allocations from the Federation Account to the states and our local councils. At the time I had just discovered the Federal Ministry of Finance’s website which published the monthly breakdowns in fairly reasonable detail albeit a few months late.

The National Population Commission also had the 2006 census figures on its website broken down to local council level as well as the 1991 census figures broken down to state level. I thought I would find something of a correlation between the sharing of money and population figures fairly easily but I quickly abandoned this task, as it was a nightmare to understand the formula behind the allocations. There are too many different components to the sharing and the only one that is fairly easy to understand is the 13 per cent derivation formula; all of the rest like population, education and even ecology were all over the place. So I moved on.

But the trouble was it had taken me three solid days to extract the census data from the NPC website because the information was in downloadable PDFs that were also ‘security locked’ i.e. I couldn’t copy the data to an excel spreadsheet to make it easier to manipulate. The Internet came to my rescue as I found software to unlock the PDFs and get the data onto a spreadsheet.

Yet again, the data didn’t tell me anything particularly useful. To be clear, there is a link between population and revenue allocation in Nigeria (which explains why our census figures are so contentious) but without some help from people who know, it is hard to work it out. After a few days of staring at the data in frustration, I was speaking to a friend and discussing Nigeria in general when I managed to steer the conversation to census figures. I told him how I had managed to extract the information and how I couldn’t find what I was looking for. He laughed and said ‘every census in Nigeria follows the formula of the one in 1963. The total figure might be correct, but the allocation of numbers follows that formula’. He said it with that Nigerian air of ‘knowingness’ where people are convinced of what they are saying even though they haven’t looked at the data.

So I went back home and tried to test his conspiracy theory. The slight wrinkle in the data was that in 1991, Nigeria had 31 states and by 2006 an additional five states (Nasarawa, Bayelsa, Ekiti, Ebonyi, and Zamfara) had been created. To solve this problem and make sure I was comparing like with like, I simply added the numbers of the five new states to the states from where they had been carved out. So Nasarawa numbers went back into Plateau, Bayelsa went back into Rivers, Ekiti went into Ondo, Ebonyi went back into Enugu (this was a bit tricky as a small part of Ebonyi was created from Abia state but it’s not statistically relevant to affect the comparison here) and finally Zamfara went back into Sokoto.

What I found caused me to rub my eyes in disbelief. My friend was right; the figures followed a formula. There wasn’t even an attempt to hide the formula – it looks as if someone just put a formula in an excel spreadsheet and came up with the numbers.

In 1991, Lagos had a population of 5,725,116 out of a total of 88,992,220 for a percentage share of six per cent. By 2006, Lagos had 9,113,605 out of a total of 140,431,790, again for a percentage of six per cent. Kano

In 1991 had a population of 5,810,470 representing seven per cent of the total. By 2006 there were 9,401,288 people in Kano, again representing 7 per cent of the total. Every single state followed this pattern.

How about the combined states? In 1991 Ondo had a population of 3,785,338 representing four per cent of the total. By 2006 Ondo had 3,460,877 people while Ekiti (carved out in 1996) had 2,398,957 people. Adding these two states together gives a total of 5,859,834 which again comes back to four per cent of the total. This is the same for Rivers – five per cent in 1991 and Bayelsa + Rivers also 5 per cent in 2006.

Pick a random state and the results are the same. Benue had a population of 2,753,077 in 1991 representing 3 per cent of the total and then 4,253,641 in 2006, also three per cent of the total. Akwa Ibom was 2,409,613 in 1991; three per cent of the total and 3,902,051 in 2006, again three per cent  of the total. You are getting bored by now so I will stop. I am sure you get the gist. Again I stress – these percentages are exactly the same from 1991 to 2006. The only difference is the FCT Abuja which obviously did not exist in 1991 but had a population of 1,406,239 in 2006 for exactly one per cent of the share of the total. This is effectively a rounding error in the total and so it does not affect the ‘formula’.

The census figures are now six years old and I did shout myself hoarse at the time about what is a truly scandalous set of figures. I do not know how it is possible to have census figures that grow exactly the same over 15 years. How does Lagos for instance continue to maintain its share of the population when the place is a magnet for people migrating from other parts of the country? We can also conclude that, for the numbers to have been so shamelessly and crudely fudged in this manner, there must be a lot riding on them when it comes to the allocation of scarce resources.

I spoke to some people about this afterwards and they said it is very likely the overall figure of 140,431,790 for 2006 was a very good estimate of the real population of Nigeria given that the EU was heavily involved in the counting and collating process and there was a lot of international help given to Nigeria to conduct the census. But it does seem as if, as soon as the foreigners left, we simply went back to our old ways and allocated the numbers as we have always done.

How do you build a nation on a lie such as this? What exactly is true about Nigeria? Because people who will lie about census figures in this manner will probably lie about unemployment figures and budget spending.

It is never too late to revisit this matter because in a few short years, Nigeria will once again embark on another census exercise. The least we can do is ensure that such a scandal like this is not repeated. This does not mean the 2006 figures should not be subject to a full inquiry; we are a democracy (at least in theory) so whether or not the numbers are six years old, they remain in play for serious debate.

For once we should try to tell the truth to ourselves as a nation.

•FF

All the figures I have used were obtained from the website of the National Population Commission which existed in2010. The website has been spruced up and is at http://www.population.gov.ng.

However, the 1991 census figures seem to have disappeared from the site. Thankfully I kept a copy from 2010.

Source: The Guardian